Modernity, secularism, development, and progress have long been viewed by the powerful few as benign ideals for the many. Today, however, botched experiments in nation-building, democracy, industrialization, and urbanization visibly scar much of the world. It was from among the ranks of the disaffected and the spiritually disorientated, that the militants of the nineteenth century arose. Many more people today, unable to fulfill the promises of a globalized economy, are increasingly susceptible to demagogues and their simplifications. A common reaction among them is intense hatred of supposed villains, the invention of enemies, attempts to recapture a lost golden age, unfocused fury and self-empowerment through spectacular violence. Here, Pankaj Mishra explores the origins of the great wave of paranoid hatreds that seem inescapable in this close-knit world, from American 'shooters' and ISIS to Trump, Modi, and racism and misogyny on social media.